Secondary Distribution of HIV Self-tests: an Innovative Strategy for Promoting Partner Testing and Reducing HIV Risk
Kisumu, Kenya

HIV self-testing can overcome barriers to HIV testing, but its potential as an HIV prevention strategy for women in sub-Saharan Africa has not been assessed. We examined whether sustained provision of self-tests to women promotes testing among sexual partners and reduces HIV incidence. We conducted a pair-matched cluster-randomised trial in 66 community clusters in Siaya County, Kenya. Clusters were communities with a high prevalence of transactional sex, including beach communities along Lake Victoria and inland communities with hotspots for transactional sex such as bars and hotels. We randomly assigned clusters to an intervention and comparison group. In intervention clusters, we provided participants with multiple self-tests at regular intervals and encouraged secondary distribution of self-tests to sexual partners. In comparison clusters, we provided participants referral cards for facility-based testing. The primary outcome of HIV incidence among all participants who contributed at least one HIV test was analysed using discrete-time mixed effects models. HIV incidence was not significantly different between the intervention and comparison groups. Social harms related to study participation occurred in three participants. Sustained provision of multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV infection in Kenya enabled secondary distribution of self-tests to sexual partners but did not affect HIV incidence.

This study is registered with NCT03135067.

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HIV; HIV self-testing; female sex workers;partner testing; couples testing; transactional sex